PhD in Textile chemistry and fiber sciences
Agent of OEKO-TEX in IRAN
In the event of assurance of building products free trade in countries of the European Union, in March 2011, “The Construction Products Regulation” ( 305/2011/EEC) adopted by the Union, and based on that, all of the products that permanently are used in construction buildings are required to have basic features stipulated in this regulations , such as physical specifications and strength, a security against the fire, health and environment, safety in use, energy and thermal transfer. However, these regulations are only specifies the general rules, and how to obtain and evaluate them will be determined by the method of expertise. In this regard, flexible textile coverings have been classified as well as the relatively long duration of use and how to use them in construction products (CPD) and under the guidelines (89/106 / EEC).
Essential features of textile flooring have been mentioned in harmonized standard EN 14041, That the most important of them can be noted the behavior against the fire, the contents of hazardous materials, gas emissions and volatile organic compounds in confined spaces, glissading features, heat transfer and electrical resistance, etc. Meanwhile, flooring 's behavior against fire is one of its most basic features, that being clear about the floorings type in terms of fire-taking according to the EN 13501-1 EN 13501-1, is a prerequisite for the CE labeling and trade in Europe's markets. Nowadays, classification of textiles (From F highly flammable to A completely resistant to fire), in terms of the behavior evaluation in fire, replacement national categories in different countries of the Union and in this regard for the flooring in order to make a distinction are used fl Subtitle. Also the middle classes B,D and D are classified in any of the following classes as S1 and S2, That the amount of smoke emitted in S1 type is less than S2 type, and generally, that means the flooring higher performance is the same in a fire-taking classes.
That what class of fire should be used completely depends on the usage and different national regulations, but generally it can be noted that in most cases for the public places, the minimum of acceptable fire-taking class is Cfl-S1 and Efl is for using in private places. Fire-taking behavior of flooring are generally associated with the type of raw material (fiber), the thickness and density of the product as well as surface structure, which are evaluated with the ISO International Standards(ISO) test methods. ISO 11925-2 and EN ISO 9239-1 EN standards, are used respectively to measure the floors flammability in the direct flame and fire-taking behavior and flooring flame propagation in the radiant heat source.
In the test method of EN ISO 9239-1 standard, The sample sizes are 1050 in 230 mm and in a horizontal position (Figure 1). The heat flow hit the sample through a panel which is usually reaches to considered temperature by the gas. The maximum of heat flow is 11 kilowatt per square meter, which gets to 1 kilowatt per square meter in the the final section of flooring sample. The test duration is thirty minutes or until the flame goes out. The flooring classification according to the EN 13501-1 standard method are done based on the heat flow which for less than it there is no flame spread and eventually one of the classes Bfl to Efl (Table 1) is assigned to the flooring. In the case of class F basically there is no need to test, and failure to provide any information about the product’s flammability class constitutes as a class F. In the chimney test equipment, electronic Instruments are embedded for measuring the exhaust chamber which is based on measured values one of the subclasses of S1 and S2 is assigned to the flooring.
In the test method of EN ISO 11925-2 standard, flammability of product is evaluated in the faced with a direct flame of fire (Fig. 2). In this test method, the Sample’s Position is a vertical and its dimensions are 250 In 90 mm and with a thickness of 60 mm. The flame sources is a small gas burner which hit to the edge and surface with the 45-degree angle. The test duration for the classes B, C and D is 30 second and for the class E is 15 second. The classification is based on the time required for the propagation of flame of fire with a length of 150 mm and falling drops and parts of test. After assessing the fire rating of a flooring, a special mark of the relevant class attached in the form of label to the product packaging and the CE label, and legally, according to the regulations of the countries or safety requirements associated with the type of product used in the assessment takes into consideration characteristics of the Flooring.